Book XVII Ch. Parmenio, (born c. 400 bc—died 330, Ecbatana, Media), Macedonian general usually considered the best officer in the service of Philip II and his son Alexander the Great. But Philip, becoming aware of this, went to Alexander's chamber, taking with him one of Alexander's friends and companions, Philotas the son of Parmenio, [3] and upbraided his son severely, and bitterly reviled him as ignoble and unworthy of his high estate, in that he desired to become the son-in-law of a man who was a Carian and a slave to a barbarian king. Già Filippo II aveva sperimentato le sue non comuni capacità di stratego in una vittoriosa campagna contro i Dardani (356) e poi nel primo tentativo macedone di porre il piede in Asia (336). In 336 he was sent with Amyntas and Attalus, his son-in-law, to Asia Minor to make preparations for the conquest of Asia. 79, 80 (Loeb Classical Library) Read the other posts in this series here The Headlines Dimnus Plots To Kill Alexander Conspiracy Exposed: Philotas Implicated Philotas Found Guilty of Treachery Alexander of Lyncestis Executed Parmenion Assassinated The Story Chapter 79 Diodorus describes the death of Philotas as a 'base action' that… Outside the major battles Parmenion’s main role was largely to secure the supply lines and take charge of the army’s supply train. Omissions? ⓘ Parmenio Adams was a businessman and politician from New York. Parmenion acceded to the order, despite the fact that Attalus was his son-in-law – or at least he did nothing to prevent Attalus from being killed. (There is some debate as to whether there really was an established custom in Macedonia of slaying all a traitor’s family to prevent repercussions, as has been asserted in the past.). At the Battle of the Granicus River in 334 B.C. Parmenio became Alexander’s second in command throughout the conquest of Persia and commanded the left wing of the army at the battles of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela. As soon as Philotas was dead Alexander sent Parmenion’s friend Polydamus to Ecbatana, with sealed orders to the other commanders – Cleander, Sitalces, Agathon and Menidas – to kill the general. Updates? I am preparing an article about the men behind Alexander and although I have a lot of good books in my hands I stopped dead on Parmenio. NOW 50% OFF! In Alexander the Great: Campaign eastward to Central Asia Philotas, Parmenio’s son, commander of the elite Companion cavalry, was implicated in an alleged plot against Alexander’s life, condemned by the army, and executed; and a secret message was sent to Cleander, Parmenio’s second in command, who obediently assassinated him. Alexa… When Alexander continued eastward after the conquest of the Persian Empire, he left Parmenio in Media to guard his communications. Alexander the great was studied under the Aristotle of Stagira, who was a Greek philosopher who pioneered systematic, … This was another event which led to the deaths of Parmenio and Philotas. In the confusion that followed Philip’s murder, he declared for Alexander and assisted in the murder of members of the faction opposed to Alexander. He served as a member of the United States House of Representatives. Journal Content. duced above, between Alexander and Parmenio, the senior general whom the conqueror inherited from his father. This he did at the Granicus, at Issus and at Gaugamela: a pivotal role especially in the latter two battles. Parmenion’s reputation has come down to us rather tarnished in the sources, it appears thanks to Callisthenes and probably to Aristoboulos, too. - Generale macedone (400-330 a. C. circa). son Alexander. [11] In addition Justin writes, "As he afterwards contemplated the wealth and display of … Alexander "the Great" -- son of the Macedonian king who created and trained the mighty army that Alexander inherited -- did what few, if any, mortals ever have: he subdued much of the then-known world. Alex. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. Hence we find an account of a staid, unadventurous general who repeatedly gave Alexander advice which, if it wasn’t actually bad, at least went against the heroic image that Alexander wished to portray. 2 While there is a robust tradition of Parmenio’s attempts to guide Alexander, this particular occasion is unique to Arrian, and it The campaign against Persia, which had had a bad start, could now really begin. Persone Even if the accusations were false, Alexander felt he had to remove Parmenion when Philotas was executed, for Parmenion at Ecbatana controlled a large military force, a vast quantity of treasure and Alexander’s logistic lifeline. He was largely responsible for the planning and execution of the Macedonian invasion of Persia. According to Plutarch Philip had just captured Potidaea when he learned that Parmenion had defeated the Illyrians, that his race-horse was victorious in the Olympic Games, and that Alexander had been born. Parmenion was sent by Philip to secure a bridgehead in Asia in 336BC. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Parmenio was also left behind in Media to control communications; the presence of this older man had perhaps become irksome. Παρμενίων, lat. It is likely that it was at this time that Parmenion heard that his sons, Philotas and Nicanor, had been given command of the Companions and the hypaspists respectively – to help ease his conscience over Attalus, perhaps, and certainly to ensure his support for Alexander. Callisthenes probably ‘re-wrote’ his history to defame the general after the murder, to excuse Alexander’s actions further. Attalus married one of Parmenio's daughters and accompanied him when he took charge of the invasion of Asia before Philip's death. Parmenióne (gr. Though it is likely that Philotas was innocent, Alexander had Parmenio murdered. During the reign of Philip, Parmenio won a great victory over the Illyrians (356). VIII. Alexander The Great wanted to be both human and divine, he wanted to have supreme power over other human beings that could never be questioned.. Born in 356 B.C., to the powerful King Philip II and ambitious queen, Olympias (foreigner and 7-8th wife of Philip). Meanwhile, the Persian satraps of Cilicia, Lydia, Hellespontine Phrygia and other territories had assembled at Zelea, near Dascylium. This army included a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. “…The only proof of Philotas’ guilt appears to have been his failure to arrange an audience for Cebalinus or to inform Alexander … .. Add an external link to your content for free. Philotas, known as a friend of Alexander, tried to reconcile him to Philip after the mysterious affair of the negotiations with Pixodarus (Plut. 10). (A third son, Hector, had died in an accident during the army’s stay in Egypt.) in southern Anatolia he defeated a much larger force under the direct command of Darius. During three great battles, Parmenion commanded the left wing (12,000 heavily armed Macedonians, 7,000 allies, and 5,000 mercenaries), while Alexander himself commanded the right wing, where Philotas was his right-hand man. Previous page: Olympias His last command was to remain in Ecbatana while Alexander proceeded into Bactria, guarding this time not just the supply route but also the royal treasure taken from Susa and Persepolis. A lot of articles and theories on the conspiracy of Philotas, but very little about Parmenio's family and career before Alexander. Parmenio, (born c. 400 bc —died 330, Ecbatana, Media), Macedonian general usually considered the best officer in the service of Philip II and his son Alexander the Great. Since the evidence demands, it, Alexander's name must be freed of an unjust charge, and yet it is difficult to believe that Alexander, had he wished, could not have persuaded the army to different action. L'onomastico si può festeggiare il 22 luglio in memoria di san Parmenio, diacono, martire in Persia sotto Decio. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies Journal Help. This site is powered by CMS Made Simple. Corrections? After Issus Parmenion hurried to Damascus to secure the Persian baggage train – from where he sent Barsine, the widow of Memnon, to become Alexander’s mistress. While Alexander went gallivanting along the coast of Asia Minor the old general took the baggage train and the rest of the army onto the Anatolian Plateau to secure the hinterland until Alexander came to meet him at Gordium. Parmenio was renowned throughout Europe and Asia as a great general, and Alexander, playing to his strengths, consulted Parmenio on most of his important battles beforehand, took his advice – and then did the … During the reign of Philip Parmenio obtained a great victory over the Illyrians (356 B. Parmenion first appears in the history of Alexander on the day that Philip heard of his son’s birth. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Keywords: Alexander the Great, Macedon, history, Parmenio, artifice, Homer, Achilles Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. His "progress" was stopped only by his force's mutiny east of … The Hellenistic Age chronicles the years 336 to 30 BCE, a period that witnessed the overlap of two of antiquity’s great civilizations, the Greek and the Roman. Arrian’s account of Parmenio’s warning to Alexander at Persepolis is meant not only to evoke Herodotus’ account of Croesus and Cyrus, but also to critique Herodotus’ notion of endless reciprocity in history. These qualities made Alexander the more willing he was encouraged by Parmenio, so Aristobulus tells us to form an attachment to a woman of such beauty and noble lineage." Whether these accusations were true or not, the commanders slew Parmenion without any fuss and their explanation of the reasons for the murder, reading out a letter from Alexander to them, ultimately satisfied the troops at Ecbatana. “…Alexander was suspicious of plots and ruthless in dealing with them.”-Hamilton. Parmenion’s strategic role was to command the left wing of the army, which included the superb Thessalian cavalry. It was while Parmenion was at Ecbatana that his son Nicanor died (of natural causes) and shortly afterwards his other son, Philotas, was accused of treason and executed. Onomastico. Parmenio presumably stayed with Alexander until he was instructed to take the major part of the army to Persepolis along the traditional carriage-way, while Alexander made a dash for the city through the mountains and the Persian Gates (Arrian, Anabasis 3.18.1; Curt., 5.3.16). Next page: Pausanias the Assassin, © Copyright 2004-2016 - We also hear that Parmenion got himself into dire straits at Gaugamela and that his appeal for help prevented Alexander from following up the victory more thoroughly – a very unlikely story considering the general’s track record. Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor. Parmenion, son of Philotas, was born early in the fourth century, probably in 400BC (he is stated as being 70 years old in 330BC), and so he was already a young man when Philip was born. Search: Add your article Home Events Years 1776 1776 births Parmenio Adams. Alexander, now recognised as the greatest commander of all time, retained Parmenio as his foremost General, but employed him somewhat differently to how his father had done. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! At the Battle of Issus in 333 B.C. Conversations in History: Arrian and Herodotus, Parmenio and Alexander Arrian’s account of Parmenio’s warning to Alexander at Persepolis is meant not only to evoke Herodotus’ account of Croesus and Cyrus, but also to critique Herodotus’ notion of endless reciprocity in … Callisthenes’ denigration of Parmenion is belied, moreover, by the continued reliance Alexander put on him to protect the lines of communication including, especially, the posting at Ecbatana with the royal treasure. Hi! Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. If the old general had decided to rebel, Alexander would in all probability have been finished. During the reign of Philip, Parmenio won a great victory over the Illyrians (356). Alexander the Great 2| Sample answer Dimnus was planning a conspiracy and made many insinuations against Philotas. In midsummer 330 Alexander set out for the eastern provinces at a high speed via Rhagae (modern Rayy, near Tehrn) and the Caspian Gates, where he learned that Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, had deposed Darius. In Italia è sostenuto dal culto verso san Parmenio, ma è raro, attestato sporadicamente nel Centro-Nord. The smearing of Parmenion’s character was a cynical piece of media manipulation on the part of Alexander’s ‘press corps’. It is perhaps difficult to excuse Alexander for ordering the murder but to leave Parmenion alive would have been too great a risk. It was probably here that Parmenion heard of Philip’s death, and where Hecataeus came with Alexander’s orders to arrest and/or execute Attalus for treason. During the campaign, Philotas, Parmenio’s son, was charged with conspiring to murder Alexander, tried, and put to death. Parmenion married his widowed daughter to Coenus, who commanded one of the battalions of pezhetairoi and who voiced the army’s grievances to Alexander at the Hyphasis in 326BC. By the time of Philip’s death he was the foremost general in Macedonia (after Philip, of course) and he continued to be held in high regard in the same position under Alexander until his death in 330BC. So, for example, Parmenion advised Alexander not to attack too early at the Granicus – which was actually very sensible counsel; and he urged Alexander to “steal a victory” at Gaugamela by attacking the Persians at night. Parmenio's death, having' been ordered by the Macedonians themselves as was that of Philotas, becomes a judicial execution. Parmenion first appears in the history of Alexander on the day that Philip heard of his son’s birth. Parmenio was a Macedonian general in the service of Philip II and he was the chief general and advisor to Alexander the Great. Along with Attalus and a force of around 10,000 men, Parmenion ‘liberated’ a number of Ionian cities, at least as far down the coast as Ephesus, before a Persian counter attack drove the Macedonians back to the Hellespont. Steven English in his “The Sieges of Alexander the Great” draws the picture of an all-powerful Parmenion, a seasoned fighter with a thorough experience.Besides that, the key positions in the army were occupied by his relatives: sons, allies, kindred, friends, etc. In May 334, king Alexander joined Parmenion with reinforcements. And while Alexander besieged Tyre he remained in Syria to keep the coast clear and the supply lines open. Parmenio -onis). Daily Diodorus Vol. Alexander was able to adapt, such as at Gaugamela, when Parmenio needed help, or at Hydaspes, when he had to deal with Porus' war elephants. According to Plutarch Philip had just captured Potidaea when he learned that Parmenion had defeated the Illyrians, that his race-horse was victorious in the Olympic Games, and that Alexander had been born. This quote relates to the effect Alexander’s actions had on his campaign., Encyclopædia Iranica - Biography of Parmenio. It would appear that Alexander’s excuse for having Parmenion killed was that he, along with Hegelochus (who died at Gaugamela) and Philotas had plotted against Alexander in Egypt, and that Parmenion had resumed plotting with Philotas more recently. Alexander made good use of the terrain in a battle, trying to find rough ground to prevent the chariots being used at Gaugamela. The presentation of Parmenio as a foil to Alexander with Alexander always coming out as the bolder and wiser, as handed down by the Alexander historians, stands in sharp contrast with Polybius’ view that “only a share of the credit for the Macedonian conquest belongs to Alexander” (294).
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